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I already presented here the importance of experience in the learning process. Today I will present you how it is possible to measure the level of the skill acquired through experience with the Dreyfus model.

The model proposes that a student passes through five distinct stages which are: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, expert. The stages follow a progression from rigid adherence to rules to an intuitive mode of reasoning based on tacit knowledge.

This model is also used in the coaching, to understand the level of the competencies that the person has.

We can summarize the five stages of increasing skill as follows:

1. Novice
Students through formal instruction hear about a new concept, but they still can not apply it. They adhere rigidly to taught rules and since they still haven’t exercised it, they aren’t able to judge a situation where the new topic could be applied.

2. Advanced beginner
In this step students start collecting experience and understanding connections, but are still not independent. Their situational perception is only limited and all aspects of the new concept are treated separately with equal importance

3. Competent
In this step students can mostly work independently, they have an overview about the situation, they can plan independently their steps and they need support only in rare cases. Student developed a kind of routine while applying the new concept into praxis.

4. Proficient
Through a lot of exercise student have an holistic view of the situation and are able to prioritize the importance of aspects. They perceives deviations from the normal pattern. Students apply intuitively their new knowledge.

5. Expert
In this stage students transcend reliance on rules, guidelines, and maxims. Here you can find an “intuitive grasp of situations based on deep, tacit knowledge” and they have a vision of what is possible. Students even use analytical approaches in new situations or in case of problems. Students here are ready to coach other students.
Written by Sonia Simpatico – JUMP team
The Dreyfus Model of Skills Acquisition – Kaizenko
Das Dreyfus Modell des Lernens – einfach erklärt – YouTube
Dreyfus model of skill acquisition – Wikipedia

The Dreyfus Model of Skills Acquisition – Kaizenko